Short answser for your case: ditch the column element and go manual.
With more details:
I’m assuming you refer to the Column layout element.
That’s one of the element Webflow bult for you, adding some setting in the Settings tab. While they’re designed to apply to most cases, you can find yourself limited by them.
Also in most cases, anything set in the Settings tab is set for all breakpoints, with a few exceptions (collection lists and columns element have some breakpoint dependent settings, but one again, limited).
But that’s OK.
That’s OK because the columns element is only a shortcut. It’s build with HTML elements and CSS settings, nothing you can’t reproduce manually and get full control of.
You can make a series of divs and set them the width you want, set how they float, stack, behave, using inline-block, float, Flexbox or a mix of all of that.
Basically, use a base grid div and set it to 25% for desktop, 33.33% for tablet, and 50% for mobile landscape (portrait will then inherit the 50%). Now inside of those divs, put another div to deal with margins and paddings, then another div with your content (one div for layout, one div for spacing/padding/margins and one div for content… rule of threes)
I’m creating grid systems all the time with Webflow. In the image below, the top green part is a grid system made out of Column elements, and below, a grid system created out of single divs.