I took a look at your project and but I’m not sure I know why the image is cropping off at the sides as it looks fine in the Designer Preview.
Have you published the project recently? If so, can you try un-publishing and republishing the project? Sometimes that can fixes little quirks that happen when the site is compiled.
Other than that I’d recommend removing any styles from the image element itself and instead let it get the sizing properties from the link block wrapper instead. Images are pretty good at filling their containers size/shape so there may be some conflicting properties that are rendering strange in the live browser.
Since I’m not able to see the issue in the Designer myself, it’s hard to see if any of my solutions are solving the problem unless they’re published to the staging domain. If for some reason my suggestions don’t fix the issue, I’ll try and take another look at things with fresh eyes